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La méthode de la "classe puzzle" est-elle efficace pour améliorer l'apprentissage ?

Abstract : The objective of this thesis is to test the effect of the Jigsaw classroom on learning. The Jigsaw classroom is a cooperative technique created by Aronson and his colleagues in the 1970s to promote the inclusion of ethnic minorities (e.g., Mexican and African-American) in desegregated schools. Although this method is presented by its developers as an effective tool for improving student learning, empirical evidence is lacking. According to the social interdependence theory, the structure of interactions between individuals determine the effects of cooperative learning (Deutsch, 1949; Johnson & Johnson, 1989). In Jigsaw, this structure comes from the distribution of complementary resources: each individual owns a “jigsaw piece”, namely a piece of information which requires the coordination of efforts among members to answer a problematic. With the help of other group members, promotive interactions (e.g., helping behaviors, explanations and questioning) should emerge which results in a better learning for the members.In this thesis, Jigsaw's effectiveness will be evaluated through a review of the scientific literature, as well as a meta-analysis of recent research and a set of experimental studies conducted among french sixth graders. To our knowledge, the experimental study of Jigsaw’s effects on learning in student populations is almost non-existent in the scientific literature and even though some research testing these effects is compiled in meta-analyses (Kyndt et al., 2013), there are no meta-analyses to date that specifficaly adress the question of Jigsaw's effects on learning. Hence, the research presented in this manuscript will attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of the Jigsaw method on learning. In Chapter 1, we present “social interdependence theory” (Johnson & Johnson, 1989, 2002, 2005), several definitions and ways of structuring cooperation between students, as well as a review of their effects on learning. Chapter 2 examines one of these cooperative technique in detail: Jigsaw (Aronson et al., 1978; Aronson & Patnoe, 2011). We describe the evolution of empirical studies conducted from its conception to the present day. Chapter 3 points out some of the limitations of this literature, particularly in terms of statistical power, and the impacts it may have on the estimation of Jigsaw's effectiveness on learning. We also develop our main hypothesis, its operationalization and the statistical tools and procedures we use in the empirical chapters: equivalence tests (Lakens, 2017), smallest effect size of interest (Hattie, 2009) and meta-analyses (Borenstein et al., 2010; Goh et al., 2016). Chapter 4 presents the results of a meta-analysis of Jigsaw's effects on learning, which synthesized empirical articles published between 2000 and 2020. We test several moderators (e.g., grade level, discipline, type of Jigsaw, location of research) in order to quantify the dispersion of Jigsaw effects and to assess heterogeneity between studies. Chapter 5 compiles five studies conducted among french sixth graders in which we test the effectiveness of Jigsaw on learning, compared to an “individual” (studies 1 and 2) or a “teaching as usual’ condition (studies 3A, 3B and 3C). The results of this chapter are interpreted with regard to the meta-analysis and the debates related to the structure of Jigsaw. In the last chapter of this manuscript, we summarize the main results developed trough the theoretical and empirical chapters. The contributions and limitations of our research are developed, as well as theoretical and practical perspectives to overcome them in view of future research.
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Arnaud Stanczak. La méthode de la "classe puzzle" est-elle efficace pour améliorer l'apprentissage ?. Psychologie. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020CLFAL013⟩. ⟨tel-03170791⟩

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