E. Azizi and T. J. Roberts, Geared up to stretch: pennate muscle behavior during active lengthening, Journal of Experimental Biology, vol.217, issue.3, pp.376-381, 2014.
DOI : 10.1242/jeb.094383

E. L. Brainerd and E. Azizi, Muscle fiber angle, segment bulging and architectural gear ratio in segmented musculature, Journal of Experimental Biology, vol.208, issue.17, pp.3249-3261, 2005.
DOI : 10.1242/jeb.01770

S. V. Brooks, E. Zerba, and J. A. Faulkner, Injury to muscle fibres after single stretches of passive and maximally stimulated muscles in mice., The Journal of Physiology, vol.488, issue.2, pp.459-469, 1995.
DOI : 10.1113/jphysiol.1995.sp020980

T. A. Butterfield, Eccentric Exercise In Vivo, Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, vol.38, issue.2, pp.51-60, 2010.
DOI : 10.1097/JES.0b013e3181d496eb

T. A. Butterfield and W. Herzog, Is the force-length relationship a useful indicator of contractile element damage following eccentric exercise?, Journal of Biomechanics, vol.38, issue.9, pp.1932-1937, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2004.08.013

T. C. Chen, Variability in Muscle Damage After Eccentric Exercise and the Repeated Bout Effect, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, vol.27, issue.3, pp.362-371, 2006.
DOI : 10.1080/02701367.2006.10599370

K. Chino, T. Oda, T. Kurihara, T. Nagayoshi, K. Yoshikawa et al., In vivo fascicle behavior of synergistic muscles in concentric and eccentric plantar flexions in humans, Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, vol.18, issue.1, pp.79-88, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jelekin.2006.08.009

P. M. Clarkson and M. J. Hubal, Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Humans, American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, vol.81, issue.Supplement, pp.52-69, 2002.
DOI : 10.1097/00002060-200211001-00007

N. J. Cronin and G. Lichtwark, The use of ultrasound to study muscle???tendon function in human posture and locomotion, Gait & Posture, vol.37, issue.3, pp.305-312, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.07.024

N. J. Cronin, C. P. Carty, R. S. Barrett, and G. Lichtwark, Automatic tracking of medial gastrocnemius fascicle length during human locomotion, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.111, issue.5, pp.1491-1496, 2011.
DOI : 10.1152/japplphysiol.00530.2011

S. Farcy, A. Nordez, S. Dorel, H. Hauraix, P. Portero et al., Interaction between gastrocnemius medialis fascicle and Achilles tendon compliance: a new insight on the quick-release method, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.116, issue.3, pp.259-266, 2014.
DOI : 10.1152/japplphysiol.00309.2013

J. Friden and R. L. Lieber, Eccentric exercise-induced injuries to contractile and cytoskeletal muscle fibre components, Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol.464, issue.3, pp.321-326, 2001.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-201x.1999.00516.x

T. Fukunaga, K. Kubo, Y. Kawakami, S. Fukashiro, H. Kanehisa et al., In vivo behaviour of human muscle tendon during walking, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.268, issue.1464, pp.229-233, 2001.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.2000.1361

D. Grieve, S. Pheasant, and P. R. Cavanagh, Prediction of gastrocnemius length from knee and ankle joint posture, 1978.

G. Guilhem, C. Cornu, and A. Guevel, Neuromuscular and muscle-tendon system adaptations to isotonic and isokinetic eccentric exercise, Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, vol.53, issue.5, pp.319-341, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.rehab.2010.04.003

URL : http://doi.org/10.1016/j.rehab.2010.04.003

G. Guilhem, F. Hug, A. Couturier, S. Regnault, L. Bournat et al., Effects of Air-Pulsed Cryotherapy on Neuromuscular Recovery Subsequent to Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage, The American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol.5, issue.2, pp.1942-1951, 2013.
DOI : 10.1249/01.MSS.0000084418.96898.2E

H. Hauraix, A. Nordez, and S. Dorel, Shortening behavior of the different components of muscle-tendon unit during isokinetic plantar flexions, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.115, issue.7, pp.1015-1024, 2013.
DOI : 10.1152/japplphysiol.00247.2013

N. Hedayatpour and D. Falla, Non-uniform muscle adaptations to eccentric exercise and the implications for training and sport, Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, vol.22, issue.3, pp.329-333, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jelekin.2011.11.010

R. D. Herbert, M. E. Eroux, J. Diong, L. E. Bilston, S. C. Gandevia et al., Changes in the length and three-dimensional orientation of muscle fascicles and aponeuroses with passive length changes in human gastrocnemius muscles, The Journal of Physiology, vol.27, issue.2, pp.441-455, 2015.
DOI : 10.1113/jphysiol.2014.279166

K. M. Hicks, G. L. Onambele-pearson, K. Winwood, and C. I. Morse, Gender differences in fascicular lengthening during eccentric contractions: the role of the patella tendon stiffness, Acta Physiologica, vol.20, pp.235-244, 2013.
DOI : 10.1111/apha.12159

B. W. Hoffman, A. G. Cresswell, T. J. Carroll, and G. A. Lichtwark, Muscle fascicle strains in human gastrocnemius during backward downhill walking, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.116, issue.11, pp.1455-1462, 2014.
DOI : 10.1152/japplphysiol.01431.2012

M. Ishikawa, T. Finni, and P. V. Komi, Behaviour of vastus lateralis muscle-tendon during high intensity SSC exercises in vivo, Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol.13, issue.3, pp.205-213, 2003.
DOI : 10.1126/science.275.5303.1113

M. Ishikawa, J. Pakaslahti, and P. V. Komi, Medial gastrocnemius muscle behavior during human running and walking, Gait & Posture, vol.25, issue.3, pp.380-384, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2006.05.002

A. Z. Jamurtas, V. Theocharis, T. Tofas, A. Tsiokanos, C. Yfanti et al., Comparison between leg and arm eccentric exercises of the same relative intensity on indices of muscle damage, European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.27, issue.1, pp.179-185, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/s00421-005-1345-0

Y. Kawakami, T. Muraoka, S. Ito, H. Kanehisa, and T. Fukunaga, muscle fibre behaviour during counter-movement exercise in humans reveals a significant role for tendon elasticity, The Journal of Physiology, vol.24, issue.2, pp.635-646, 2002.
DOI : 10.1113/jphysiol.2001.013459

N. Konow and T. J. Roberts, The series elastic shock absorber: tendon elasticity modulates energy dissipation by muscle during burst deceleration, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.213, issue.24, 2015.
DOI : 10.1242/jeb.044297

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4375865

L. Lacourpaille, F. Hug, K. Bouillard, J. Y. Hogrel, and A. Nordez, Supersonic shear imaging provides a reliable measurement of resting muscle shear elastic modulus, Physiological Measurement, vol.33, issue.3, pp.19-28, 2012.
DOI : 10.1088/0967-3334/33/3/N19

L. Lacourpaille, A. Nordez, F. Hug, A. Couturier, C. Dibie et al., Time-course effect of exercise-induced muscle damage on localized muscle mechanical properties assessed using elastography, Acta Physiologica, vol.81, issue.Pt 1, pp.135-146, 2014.
DOI : 10.1111/apha.12272

G. A. Lichtwark, K. Bougoulias, and A. M. Wilson, Muscle fascicle and series elastic element length changes along the length of the human gastrocnemius during walking and running, Journal of Biomechanics, vol.40, issue.1, pp.157-164, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2005.10.035

R. L. Lieber and J. Friden, Muscle damage is not a function of muscle force but active muscle strain, J Appl Physiol, vol.74, pp.520-526, 1993.

R. L. Lieber, T. M. Woodburn, and J. Friden, Muscle damage induced by eccentric contractions of 25% strain, J Appl Physiol, vol.70, pp.2498-2507, 1991.

R. L. Lieber, S. Shah, and J. Friden, Cytoskeletal Disruption After Eccentric Contraction-Induced Muscle Injury, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, vol.403, pp.90-99, 2002.
DOI : 10.1097/00003086-200210001-00011

D. L. Morgan, New insights into the behavior of muscle during active lengthening, Biophysical Journal, vol.57, issue.2, pp.209-221, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/S0006-3495(90)82524-8

K. Nosaka and K. Sakamoto, Effect of elbow joint angle on the magnitude of muscle damage to the elbow flexors, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol.33, pp.22-29, 2001.
DOI : 10.1097/00005768-200101000-00005

G. Paulsen, U. R. Mikkelsen, T. Raastad, and J. M. Peake, Leucocytes, cytokines and satellite cells: what role do they play in muscle damage and regeneration following eccentric exercise?, Exerc Immunol Rev, vol.18, pp.42-97, 2012.

L. Penailillo, A. J. Blazevich, and K. Nosaka, Muscle Fascicle Behavior during Eccentric Cycling and Its Relation to Muscle Soreness, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, vol.47, issue.4, pp.708-717, 2015.
DOI : 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000473

O. Prasartwuth, J. L. Taylor, and S. C. Gandevia, Maximal force, voluntary activation and muscle soreness after eccentric damage to human elbow flexor muscles, The Journal of Physiology, vol.552, issue.Suppl, pp.337-348, 2005.
DOI : 10.1113/jphysiol.2005.087767

U. Proske and D. L. Morgan, Muscle damage from eccentric exercise: mechanism, mechanical signs, adaptation and clinical applications, The Journal of Physiology, vol.535, issue.2, pp.333-345, 2001.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.00333.x

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2278966

T. Raastad, S. G. Owe, G. Paulsen, D. Enns, K. Overgaard et al., Changes in Calpain Activity, Muscle Structure, and Function after Eccentric Exercise, Changes in calpain activity, muscle structure , and function after eccentric exercise, pp.86-95, 2010.
DOI : 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181ac7afa

D. D. Shin, J. A. Hodgson, V. R. Edgerton, and S. Sinha, In vivo intramuscular fascicle-aponeuroses dynamics of the human medial gastrocnemius during plantarflexion and dorsiflexion of the foot, Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.107, issue.4, pp.1276-1284, 2009.
DOI : 10.1152/japplphysiol.91598.2008

T. Wakahara, H. Kanehisa, Y. Kawakami, and T. Fukunaga, Effects of knee joint angle on the fascicle behavior of the gastrocnemius muscle during eccentric plantar flexions, Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, vol.19, issue.5, pp.980-987, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jelekin.2008.05.008