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L. Fran and . Lyon, France he was researcher at the National Institute for Sports (INSEP), France. He is currently assistant professor at the University of Nantes (Laboratory Motricity, Interactions, Performance), France. He has published four national and nineteen international papers in peer-review periodicals. His research interests focus on (1) the metabolic and neuromuscular adaptations of trained cyclists) the neuromuscular adaptations to fatigue and (3) EMG activity of respiratory muscles submitted to mechanical/metabolic loads. Sylvain Dorel received his Ph.D. in ''Motor Function in Human After a post-doctoral position at the University Lyon I as a teaching and research assistant (CRIS), he is currently researcher at the National Institute for Sports (INSEP), cois Hug received his Ph.D. from the university of Aix-Marseille II His research interests focus on the neuromuscular adaptations , mechanical characteristics (kinetics and kinematics), and performance (1) during maximal cycling exercise and (2) during sub-maximal exercise in response to the occurrence of fatigue or in relation with alterations of the posture or material, 2003.