R. B. Alderman, Strategies for motivating young people, Sport Psycho/ogy : An Analysis of Athlete behavior, lthaca, 1978.

R. B. Alderman and N. L. Wood, An analysis of incentive motivation in young canadian athletes, Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, vol.1, pp.169-176, 1976.

C. Ames, Achievement attributions and self-instructions under competitive and individual goal structures, Journal of Educational Psycho/ogy, vol.76, pp.478-487, 1984.

C. Ames, Achievement goals, motivational climate, and motivational processes, Motivation in sport and exercise, pp.161-176, 1992.

C. Ames and R. Ames, Systems of student and teacher motivation: Towards a qualitative definition, Journal of Educational Psycho/ogy, vol.76, pp.535-556, 1984.

C. Ames and . Archer, Achievement goals in the classroom: Students' learning strategies and motivation processes, Journal of Educational Psycho/ogy, vol.1, pp.260-267, 1988.

1. W. Atkinson, Motivational determinants of risk-taking behaviors, Psychological Review, vol.64, pp.359-372, 1957.

V. Aubin, Les facteurs d'abandon dujudo, 1986.

A. Bandura, Self efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change, Psychological Review, vol.84, pp.191-215, 1977.

A. Belus, La participation sportive : La motivation à réussir des judokas, 1993.

S. Biddle, Sport and exercice motivation: A brief review of antecedents factors and psychological outcomes of participation, Physical Education Revievv, vol.2, pp.98-109, 1992.

R. Buonamano, A. Cei, and A. Mussino, Participation motivation in ltalian youth sport, The Sport Psychologist, vol.9, pp.265-281, 1995.

. A. Cei, Participation sportive et motivation chez l'enfant : bilan des études en Australie, en Europe et en Amérique du Nord, Sport et développement de l'enfant. Revue Enfance, vol.2, pp.145-159, 1994.

E. L. Deci, lntrinsic motivation, 1975.

E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan, Self-determination theory: When mind mediates behavior, Journal of Mi nd and Behavior, vol.1, pp.33-43, 1980.

E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan, lntrinsic motivation and selfdetermination in human behavior, 1985.

J. L. Du-da, Goals and achievement orientations of Anglo and Mexican-American adolescents in sport and the classroom, lntemational Journal of lntercultural Relations, vol.9, pp.131-155, 1985.

J. L. Du-da, Perceptions of sport success and failure among white, black, and hispanie adolescents, Sport science, pp.214-222, 1986.

J. L. Du-da, A cross-cultural analysis of achievement motivation in sport and the classroom, pp.117-131, 1986.

J. L. Duda, Toward a developmental theory of children's motivation in sport, Journal of Sport Psycho/ogy, vol.9, pp.130-145, 1987.

J. L. Du-da, The relationship between goal perspectives, pcrsistence, and bchavioral intensity among male and female recreationa1 pa11icipants, Leisure Sciences, vol.10, pp.95-106, 1988.

J. L. Du-da, Relationship between task and ego orientation and the perceivcd plll·poses of sport among high school ath1etes, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psycho/ogy, li, vol.9, pp.318-335, 1989.

J. L. Du-da, Motivation in sport settings: A goal perspective approach, Motivation in sport and exercise, pp.57-91, 1992.

J. L. Duda, L. Chi, M. L. Newton, M. D. Walling, and D. Catley, Task and ego orientation and intrinsic motivation in sport, Journal of Sport Psycho/ogy, vol.26, pp.40-63, 1995.

M. Durand, F. Cury, P. Sarrazin, and J. P. Famose, Le questionnaire de perception du succès en sport : validation française du "Perception of Success Questionnaire, lntemational Joumal of Sport Psycho/ogy, vol.27, pp.251-268, 1996.

C. S. Dweck, Motivational processes affecting learning, American Psychologist, issue.10, pp.1040-1048, 1986.

C. S. Dweck and E. L. Leggett, A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality, Psychological Review, vol.95, pp.265-273, 1988.

J. Epstein, Effective schools or effective students ? Dea ling with diversity, Policies for America's Public Schools, pp.89-126, 1988.

J. Epstein, Family structure and student motivation: A developmental perspective, Research on motivation in education, vol.3, 1989.

M. E. Ewing, Achievement orientations and sports behavior of males and females. Unpuhlished doctoral dissertation, 1981.

J. P. Famose, F. Cury, and P. Sarrazin, Buts d'accomplissement en fonction du sexe, Recherches en APS, vol.3, pp.553-567, 1991.

D. L. Feltz and L. Petlichkoff, Perceived competence among interscholastic sport participants an dropouts, Canadian Joumal of Applied Sport Sciences, vol.8, issue.4, pp.231-235, 1983.

C. Gernigon and H. Le-bars, Effects of sport practice and gender on children's and adults' achievement goals in aïkido and judo, Proceedings of the IXth European Congres.\· on Sport Psycho/ogy, pp.331-338, 1995.

D. L. Gill, Competitiveness among females and males in physical activity classes, Sex Rotes, vol.15, pp.233-247, 1986.
DOI : 10.1007/bf00288314

URL : http://libres.uncg.edu/ir/uncg/f/D_Gill_Competitiveness_1986.pdf

D. L. Gill, Gender differences in competitive orientation and sport participation, International Journal of Sport Psycho/ogy, vol.19, pp.145-159, 1988.

D. L. Gill, J. B. Gross, and S. Huddleston, Participation motivation in youth sports, International Journal of Sport Psycho/ogy, vol.14, pp.1-14, 1983.

D. Gould, D. Feltz, and M. R. Weiss, Motives for participating in competitive young swimming, International Journal of' Sport Psycho/ogy, vol.6, pp.126-140, 1985.

D. Gould, D. Feltz, T. S. Horn, and M. R. Weiss, Reasons for attrition in competitive youth swimming, Journal of Sport Behavior, vol.5, pp.155-165, 1982.

S. Harter, Effectance motivation reconsidered developmental mode!, Human development, vol.21, pp.34-64, 1978.
DOI : 10.1159/000271574

S. Harter, The perceived competence scale for children, Child Development, vol.53, pp.87-97, 1982.
DOI : 10.1037/t05704-000

S. Hm·ter, Causes, correlates, and the functiona1 ro1e of global self-worth: A life-span perspective, Competence cons ide red, pp.67-97, 1990.

M. Kavussanu and G. C. Roberts, Motivation in physical activity contexts: the relationship of perceived motivational climate to intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy, Journal of Sport and Exercice Psycho/ogy, vol.18, pp.264-280, 1996.

K. A. Klint and M. R. Weiss, Dropping in and dropping out: Participation motives of current and former youth gymnasts, Canadian Journal ofApplied Sport Sciences, vol.11, pp.106-114, 1986.

K. A. Klint and M. R. Weiss, Perceived competence and motives for participating in youth sports : a test of Harter's competence motivation theory, Journal of Sport Psycho/ogy, vol.9, pp.55-65, 1987.

F. Le-cren, Le judo: Abandons en Loire Atlantique. Mémoire de Maîtrise, 1991.

K. Longhurst and K. S. Spink, Participation motivation of Australian children involved in organized sport, Canadian Journal of Sport Science, vol.12, pp.24-30, 1987.

M. L. Maehr and J. G. Nicholls, Culture and achievement motivation : a second look, Studies in cross cultural-psycho/ogy, vol.3, pp.221-267, 1980.

D. C. Mcclelland, J. W. Atkinson, R. W. Clark, and E. L. Lowell, The achievement motive, 1953.

B. D. Mcpherson, R. Marteniuk, J. Tihanyi, and W. Clark, The social system of age group swimming: The perceptions of swimmers, parents, and coaches, Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences, vol.5, issue.3, pp.142-145, 1980.

H. A. Murray, Explorations in personality, 1938.

J. G. Nicholls, The development of the concepts of effort and ability, perception of academie attainment, and the understanding that difficult tasks require more ability, Child Development, vol.49, pp.800-814, 1978.

J. G. Nicholls, Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance, Psychological Revinv, vol.91, issue.3, pp.328-346, 1984.
DOI : 10.1037//0033-295x.91.3.328

J. G. Nicholls, Conceptions of ability and achievement motivation, Research on motivation in education, vol.1, pp.39-73, 1984.

J. G. Nicholls, The competitive eth os and democratie education, 1989.

J. G. Nicholls, The general and the specifie in the development and expression of achievement motivation, Motivation in sport and exercise, pp.31-56, 1992.

J. G. Nicholls and A. T. Miller, Development and its discontents: The differentiation of the concept of ability, Advances in motivation and achievement, vol.3, pp.185-218, 1984.

T. D. Orlick, Chi1dren's sport-A revolution is coming, Canadian Association for Healtn, Physical Education, and Recreation Journal, pp.12-14, 1973.

T. D. Orlick, The athletic dropout. A high priee of inefficiency, CAHPER Journal, pp.21-27, 1974.

A. Papaioannou, Differentiai perceptual and motivationa1 patterns when different goals are adopted, Journal of Sport and Exercice Psycho/ogy, vol.17, pp.18-34, 1995.
DOI : 10.1123/jsep.17.1.18

G. C. Roberts, Toward a new theory of motivation in sport: The role of perceived ability, Psychologicalfoundations of sport, 1984.

G. C. Roberts, Achievement motivation in children's sport, pp.251-281, 1984.
DOI : 10.1249/00003677-198201000-00008

G. C. Roberts, Motivation in sport and exerc1se: Conceptual constraints and convergence, pp.3-29, 1992.

G. C. Roberts and G. Balague, The development and validation of the perception of sucees.\· questionnaire, 1991.

G. C. Roberts and J. L. Duda, Motivation in sport: The mediating role of perceived ability, Journal of Sport Psycho/ogy, vol.6, pp.312-324, 1984.

G. C. Roberts, D. A. Kleiber, and J. L. Du-da, An analysis of motivation in children's sport: The role of perceived competence in participation, Journal of Sport Psycho/ogy, vol.3, pp.206-216, 1981.

G. C. Roberts and D. C. Treasure, Sport de compétition et motivation chez l'enfant: Approche à partir de la théorie des butsd'accomplissement, Sport et développement de l'enfant, vol.2, pp.161-169, 1994.
DOI : 10.3406/enfan.1994.2096

G. C. Roberts, D. C. Treasure, and M. Kavussanu, Orthogona1ity of achievement goals and its relationship to beliefs about success and satisfaction in sport, The sport psychologist, vol.10, pp.398-408, 1996.

. Seifriz, J. L. Duda, and L. Chi, The re1ationship of perceived motivationa1 climate to intrinsic motivation an beliefs about success in Basketball, Journal of Sport and Exercice Psycho/ogy, vol.14, pp.375-391, 1992.

. Sa-pp and J. Haubenstricker, Motivation for joining and reas ons for not continuing in young sport programs in Michigan. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Alliance for Heath. Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 1978.

K. S. Spink and K. Longhurst, Participation motives of Australian boys involved in traditional and modified cricket, Australian Joumal of Science and Medicine in Sport, vol.22, pp.28-32, 1990.

M. Theeboom, P. De-knop, and M. R. Weiss, Motivational climate, psychological responses, and motor skill development in children's sport: A field-based intervention study, Journal of Sport and Exercise Psycho/ogy, vol.17, pp.294-311, 1995.
DOI : 10.1123/jsep.17.3.294

!. Thil and E. , Motivation et stratégies de motivation en milieu sportif, 1989.

D. C. Treasure and G. C. Roberts, Applications of achievement goal theory to physical education: Implications for enhancing motivation, Quest, vol.47, pp.475-489, 1995.

R. J. Vallerand and N. M. Brière, Développement et validation d'un instrument de mesure par questionnaire de motivation intrinsèque, extrinsèque, d'a motivation pour le domaine des sports, 1990.

R. J. Vallerand and W. R. Halliwell, Vers une méthodologie de validation trans-culturelle de questionnaires psychologiques: Implications pour la psychologie du sport, Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Science, vol.8, issue.1, pp.9-18, 1983.
DOI : 10.1037/h0079856

M. D. Walling, J. L. Duda, and L. Chi, The perceived motivational elima te in sport questionnaire: Construct and predictive validity, 1993.
DOI : 10.1123/jsep.15.2.172

URL : https://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/bitstream/1808/11414/1/Fry_the%20perceived%20motivational.pdf

!. Oumal, O. Sport, E. Psycho, and /. Ogy, , vol.15, pp.172-183

M. R. Weiss and N. Chaumeton, Motivational orientations m sport, Advances in .1port psycho/ogy, pp.61-99, 1992.

B. Weiner, An attributional them·y of achievement motivation and emotion, Psychologica/ Review, vol.92, issue.4, pp.548-573, 1985.

B. Weiner, An attributional theory of motivation and emotion, 1986.

R. W. White, Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence, Psychological Revie~t·, vol.66, pp.297-333, 1959.

S. A. White and J. L. Duda, The relationship of gender, leve! of sport involvement, and participation motivation to task and ego orientation, International Journal of Sport Psycho/ogy, vol.25, pp.4-18, 1994.

J. R. Whitehead, Multiple achievement orientations and participation in youth sport: A cultural and developmental perspective. International joumal of Sport Psycho/ogy, vol.26, pp.431-452, 1995.

, Annexe IX Questionnaire de Climat Motivationnel Perçu

. Dans-le-cadre-d'une-Étude-sur-le-judo, nous essayons de comprendre la manière dont tu perçois l'ambiance à l'intérieur de ton club tant à l'entraînement que lors des compétitions. Ces questionnaires resteront confidentiels. donc mets réellement ce que tu penses ! Vont suivre un certain nombre d'affi1mations ; entoure pour chacune d'elles le chiffre qui concspond le mieux à ce que tu ressens sans y ajouter de commentaire

.. Dans-ce-club-de-judo,

, les judokas s'entraident pour progresser et devenir excellents. 2... l'entraîneur sc fâche quand un combattant fait une erreur. 3... les judokas sont encouragés à battre leurs propres partenaires. 4... les judokas s'aident entre eux au cours de J'apprentissage. 5... l'cntraiJH?ur favorise certains judokm

, J'entraîneur encourage les judokas à s'entraitkr pour apprendre

R. , chaque judoka participe à quelque chose d'important. 9.. .l'entraîneur cric sur les combattants qui ont échoué

, les judokas se sentent hien lorsqu'ils essaient d(.' fain· de leur mieux

. Il, seuls les tnut meilleurs combattunts sont hien vus de l'entraîneur

, entraîneur s'assure que les _judokas s'améliorent dans leurs points faibles. u ... les judokas sont punis quand ils font une erreur

, !"entraîneur a->cs préféré(c)s

, les judokas travaillent réellement ensemble comme des coéquipiers

, chaque judoka a un rôle important

, l'entraîneur dit du bien des judokas seulement lorsqu'ils sont meilleurs que leurs partenaires

, le-> judokas ont peur de commettre des erreurs. 19 ... les judokas se sentent en réussite lor->qu'ils s'améliorent

, entraîneur pcihe que chacun d'entre nous a un rôle important pour le

, entraîneur accorde la plupart de son attention aux '"vedettes

C. Bü'i-<, Jes judokas se SCtltent tOUt excités quand Îls font mieUX que leurs propres partenaires dans une compétition

, les judokas sont exclus de la compétition suivante lorsqu'ils ont fait une erreur. 25-... seuls les combattants aux meilleurs résultats sont félicité->

, les judokas sont encouragés ;. travailler leurs points faibles

, quel que soit son niveau, chaque judoka a un rôle important dans cette équipe