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Adaptations in muscle oxidative capacity, fiber size, and oxygen supply capacity after repeated-sprint training in hypoxia combined with chronic hypoxic exposure

Abstract : In this study, we investigate adaptations in muscle oxidative capacity, fiber size and oxygen supply capacity in team-sport athletes after six repeated-sprint sessions in normobaric hypoxia or normoxia combined with 14 days of chronic normobaric hypoxic exposure. Lowland elite field hockey players resided at simulated altitude (≥14 h/day at 2,800–3,000 m) and performed regular training plus six repeated-sprint sessions in normobaric hypoxia (3,000 m; LHTLH; n = 6) or normoxia (0 m; LHTL; n = 6) or lived at sea level with regular training only (LLTL; n = 6). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the m. vastus lateralis before (pre), immediately after (post-1), and 3 wk after the intervention (post-2). Changes over time between groups were compared, including likelihood of the effect size (ES). Succinate dehydrogenase activity in LHTLH largely increased from pre to post-1 (~35%), likely more than LHTL and LLTL (ESs = large-very large), and remained elevated in LHTLH at post-2 (~12%) vs. LHTL (ESs = moderate-large). Fiber cross-sectional area remained fairly similar in LHTLH from pre to post-1 and post-2 but was increased at post-1 and post-2 in LHTL and LLTL (ES = moderate-large). A unique observation was that LHTLH and LHTL, but not LLTL, improved their combination of fiber size and oxidative capacity. Small-to-moderate differences in oxygen supply capacity (i.e., myoglobin and capillarization) were observed between groups. In conclusion, elite team-sport athletes substantially increased their skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, while maintaining fiber size, after only 14 days of chronic hypoxic residence combined with six repeated-sprint training sessions in hypoxia.
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Stephan van der Zwaard, Franck Brocherie, Bengt Kom, Grégoire P Millet, Louise Deldicque, et al.. Adaptations in muscle oxidative capacity, fiber size, and oxygen supply capacity after repeated-sprint training in hypoxia combined with chronic hypoxic exposure. Journal of Applied Physiology, American Physiological Society, 2018, 124 (6), pp.1403-1412. ⟨10.1152/japplphysiol.00946.2017⟩. ⟨hal-02545565⟩

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